A single camera either motion picture camera or professional video camera is employed on the set, and each shot to make up a scene is taken independently. An alternative production method, which is more widely used is still called a single camera, but in actuality two cameras are employed,one to capture a medium shot of the scene while the other to capture a close-up during the same take, which saves time as there are half as many set-ups for each scene.
As its name suggests, a production using the single-camera setup generally employs just one camera. Each of the various shots and camera angles is taken using the same camera, which is moved and reset to get each shot or new angle. The lighting setup is typically reconfigured for each camera setup.
In contrast, a multiple-camera setup consists of multiple cameras arranged to capture all of the different shots (camera angles) of the scene simultaneously, and the set must be lit to accommodate all camera setups concurrently. Multi-camera production generally results in faster but less versatile photography.
In single-camera, if a scene cuts back and forth between actor A and actor B, the director will first point the camera towards A and shoot shots number 1, 3, 5, 7, and so on. Then they will point the camera toward B and do shots number 2, 4, 6, 8, and so on. In the post-production editing process, the shots will be assembled sequentially to fit the script.
The single-camera setup gives the director more control over each shot, but is more time consuming and expensive than multiple-camera. The choice of single-camera or multiple-camera setups is made separately from the choice of film or video (that is, either setup can be shot in either film or video). Multiple-camera setups shot on video can be switched live-to-tape during the performance, while setups shot on film still require that the various camera angles be edited together later.
Multiple Camera Techniques:
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or simply multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras either film or professional video cameras are employed on the set and simultaneously record or broadcast a scene. It is often contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera.
Generally, the two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or crosses of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a widermaster shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action. This is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent film editing or video editing the footage.
It is also a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. Apart from saving editing time, scenes may be shot far more quickly as there is no need for re-lighting and the set-up of alternative camera angles for the scene to be shot again from the different angle. It also reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles. It is an essential part of live television.
In Eastenders they use this, with getting good angles and lightning, and showing the characters facial expressions,emotions and the location and who is around them.
An open Narrative structure is usually found in television series, in particular, ongoing soap operas such as EastEnders/Neighbours. In these narratives, the story has no apparent beginning, middle or end, in terms of the actual events. A familiar device in open narratives, especially soap operas, is a cliffhanger ending to each episode, from which the next episode can follow on. As a result, these stories can last a long time, and the programme itself can continue for years.
A Closed Narrative structure is most commonly found in movies. As mentioned before, movies generally exist as one unique story, and contain a beginning, middle and an ending. A story is unravelled before an audience, and then ultimately brought to a conclusion. A closed narrative in a movie does not necessarily mean no sequels can be made. There can be prequels, set before the chronology of the first movie, or a sequel that can create an all-new story, with the same characters. But strictly speaking, they can still be movies in their own right. The James Bond movies (1962-1999), which total 19 separate movies involving the same characters, provide a good example of this.
eye level angle:
An eyelevel angle is the one in which the camera is placed at the subject’s height, so if the actor is looking at the lens, he wouldn’t have to look up or down. Eyelevel shots are incredibly common because they are neutral. They often have no dramatic power whatsoever, thus they are ideal for romantic comedies and news casting.
Low angles are captured from a camera placed below the actor’s eyes, looking up at them. Low angles make characters look dominant, aggressive, or ominous.
In a high angle, the camera is above the subject, looking down. This position makes characters look weak, submissive, or frightened. They are also good POVs of an adult looking at a child.
Also called canted angle, a Dutch tilt has the camera leaning sideways, transforming the horizon into a slope. A Dutch tilt changes horizontal and vertical lines into diagonals and creates a more dynamic composition. Though rare, canted angles can be employed with great artistic effect to disorient and disturb the viewer.
Point Of View (POV):
As the name suggests, point-of-view shots are angles in which the camera incorporates a character’s eyes. POVs are usually preceded by a close up of the character’s eyes.
High-key lighting is a style of lighting for film, television, or photography that aims to reduce the lighting ratio present in the scene. This was originally done partly for technological reasons, since early film and television did not deal well with high contrast ratios, but now is used to suggest an upbeat mood. It is often used in sitcoms and comedies. High-key lighting is usually quite homogeneous and free from dark shadows. The terminology comes from the key light (main light).
Low-key lighting is a style of lighting for photography, film or television. It is a necessary element in creating a chiaroscuro effect. Traditional photographic lighting, three-point lighting uses a key light, a fill light, and a back light for illumination. Low-key lighting often uses only one key light, optionally controlled with a fill light or a simple reflector.
Soft light refers to light that tends to “wrap” around objects, casting diffuse shadows with soft edges. Soft light is when a light source is large relative to the subject, hard light is when the light source is small relative to the subject.
This depends mostly on the following two factors:
- Distance. The closer the light source, the softer it becomes.
- Size of light source. The larger the source, the softer it becomes.
Sound whose source is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film:
- voices of characters
- sounds made by objects in the story
- music represented as coming from instruments in the story space ( = source music)
Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originated from source within the film’s world
Digetic sound can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever its source is within the frame or outside the frame.
Non- Diagetic sounds:
Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action:
- narrator’s commentary
- sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect
- mood music
Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from the a source outside story space.
The distinction between diegetic or non-diegetic sound depends on our understanding of the conventions of film viewing and listening. We know of that certain sounds are represented as coming from the story world, while others are represented as coming from outside the space of the story events. A play with diegetic and non-diegetic conventions can be used to create ambiguity (horror), or to surprise the audience (comedy).