Unit 3 Review: The Keep

We took a trip to the Keep, where many West Sussex artifacts are kept and put into storage rooms. We first got to look at glass negatives and how to handle them as they very delicate. We also learnt techniques of how to clean maps and old papers by using rubbers by taking off the old and making it new just by using an eraser. We also went onto the Keeps website to search for things that could be kept at the keep. We found old papers and records of deaths at the camp. No deaths of war but by accident. Some soldiers were drunk and fell and hit their heads or by falling off railings. The write up and the witnesses of the accidents were very interesting to read.

To find out how everything happened and how they documented back 100 years ago.

After we looked at the death records we went up into the cold storage rooms. We learnt the rooms had high security and also it was freezing, that is to keep the artifacts and records in tact.



Unit 3 Review: Happy Valley Metal Detecting.

Our trip to Happy Valley, Slonk Hill. Where shoreham army camp would of been. We had metal detectors and archaeologist and professionals. Trying to find artifacts from when the shoreham army was being used 100 years ago. What we found was a clinker from the stoves of the huts, construction materials such as nails and a window latch, quite a few .202 shells from target practice and metal hoops from the rucksacks the soldiers wore. I learnt a lot about how to use a metal detector and to ignore some signals to avoid tin foil and beer cans. The experience was amazing.


Using a device that shows what the artifact is made from deemed very helpful.

All the items looked untouched and will defiantly be useful in Worthing Museam.


Risk Assessment


Production title: Shoreham army camp
Date: 28/1/2015

Production team (Person designated to be responsible for safety to be noted *)
Name Role Name Role
Emily Scott Sound/Director Emily Botting Camera Man/Director
Zoe Caplin Actor/Narrator/Director Simon Rivers Assitant

Areas of Hazard (tick where appropriate) Areas of Hazard (tick where appropriate)
Aircraft, micro lights, balloons, parachutes No Machinery (cranes, hoists, power tools) Camera/boomers
Animals – wild, dangerous, infection, infestation Someones dog/ Seagulls/Pigeon Night operations During the day
Blocked access / egress Public place Noise / high level sounds Voices?
Cables, trailing or slung Cables Physical exertion / abnormal stress Stress
Compressed gas, cryogenics No Radiation No
Confined spaces (eg. mines, caves) No Stunts No
Excavations, sewers, tanks No Vehicles (moving or static) Foot
Derelict building, dangerous structures No Visual effects (explosives, pyrotechnics, fire, smoke, rain) No
Disabled contributors, access requirements No Violence / civil unrest No
Diving operations No Water / proximity to water no
Fire, flammable materials No Weapons no
Hazardous substances (chemicals, drugs, asbestos, micro-organisms) yep Working at heights (scaffolds, hydraulic platforms, rostra ladders) no
Heat, cold, extremes of weather Cold Working patterns (extended hours of work) Extended college work
Children No Other –
Lasers, stroboscopes No Other –

(H, M, L) Person(s) at risk
(H, M, L) Precautions to be taken

Someone could fall over on a rabbit hole or any part of the field.

all H Look where you are going and take your steps cautiously.

Slipping over on damp water all H if raining/ or raining the day before Step cautiously

Seagulls/ piegon attacks All S chance Look out

Dogs of lead
All Below average chance Keep an eye out

Tripping over cables
All mostly emily and emily H chance Check where you are walking and where righjt footwear

Details of Hazards:
Possible severity: H = severe or multiple injuries; M = lost time injury; L = minor first aid injury.
Likelihood: H = extremely likely to occur; M = likely to occur; L = slight chance of occurring.

Bowling for Columbine Essay

Bowling for Columbine

The documentary directed by Michael Moore about the Columbine High School 1999 Massacre. The main subject of his documentary is about gun violence and gun laws in the United States. He also covers the glamorisation of acts of violence with firearms. In the opening scene a man dressed in an army uniform speaks on behalf of the National Rifle Association. This shot is used for propaganda which is an analogy to reality. The man dressed in the US uniform speaks “The National Rifle Association has produced a film which you are sure to find of great interest.  Let’s look at it.” Michael Moore narrates over the top of Washington DC which uses a fade in camera translation and Colorado scenes of America in early morning, playing patriotic music of an average American morning. Which makes American seem like paradise, having a view shot of the sun coming up behind the Washington monument. An average American farmer doing his chores and showing the American morning daily routine just like any other day in the United States. From going to a normal daily routine to shots of destroyed buildings that the president blew up, showing Americas government and military destruction. Michael’s tone about the subject is just the same tone he used about the views of Colorado. Showing that this is deemed as normal in American life, destruction.  Showing stereotypical shots of the Statue of Liberty, a bowling alley shot of someone missing the pins, showing its ironic match with the title and the meaning of the documentary. It also shows an American women in a dessert with rock and roll, bleach blonde hair wearing latex under wear holding a large gun. All stereotypical representations of American women. Blonde hair, wearing something provocative. Also American men expectations of women. Blonde hair, skinny, holding a gun and being ‘sexy’.  Most of the shots used in this sequence are action shots and birds eye view of over the buildings in Colorado. Following the open fields and a dolly shot of a farmer of a combine harvester. This shows the working class in America.

In the second sequence Michael interviews James Nicholls the brother of Terry Nichols who was convicted of blowing up the Oklahoma City bomb attack. He also was put on trial of being involved with the bombing but they didn’t have any evidence, so they dropped his case. In this sequence he is shown standing next to Michael looking out onto his innocent looking farm. He said he is a food farmer. Michael asked if he made any bombs he said him and his brother used to make practice bombs on the farm. He mentions on the voice over of James being set free from court that he “didn’t have the goods on James.” Showing that Michael believes he did have something to do with the bombing, the police didn’t have evidence. He goes on to ask him if Timothy McVeigh who was also guilty of being involved in the bombing who was later executed stayed at James’s farm for ‘many months’, Making James look even guiltier of bomb possession. In each of the interview scenes in the documentary, James is cut off many times after saying something mildly impropriate e.g. saying Timothy McVeigh was a ‘decent guy’. Michael asked if he made any bombs on the farm and James answered “Yes, blasting caps and dynamite fuse. “Also “But its normal farm stuff.” Dynamite and blasting caps is not normal farm stuff. This interview is heavily edited showing a biased view on James’s part making him look bad and guilty of the Oklahoma Bombing. The next scene is cut to him talking to Moore in his dining room. Again this interview scene is heavily edited he talks about his ex wifes comment. Stated she said he was “Wild and has a gun under every sleeve and in his boots.” Saying he was gun happy and dangerous. He then goes on to saying about the government “When people find out there enslaved by the government they turn to anger, merciless anger.” Moore sits opposite him the camera every so often shows his expression listening to him; the shots are quick and are barely noticeable. After his comment he says “Blood will be running in the streets.” They cut straight after he says something controversial. Showing that the view is biased on him, afterwards he might explain his comment or edit his comments out of the documentary, to make James look bad.  The cut shows him sitting in a different position showing it jump cut to Michael asking him about Gandi’s ways. The camera zooms into his face showing his confused facial expression and replies “I’m not familiar with that.” Another controversial comment to make Moore’s point to show James is clueless about his actions. After a quick cut again it cuts to a boy in the local bowling alley saying “Oscoda has a bad habit of bringing up psychos.” Matching James comments about the Oklahoma bombing, could be saying that James is a psycho.

Half way through a conversation James is back on the documentary and Michael asks him “Was it wrong to kill all those people?” He nods his head and takes him a while to answer then zooming into his face again showing his facial expressions. He asks him again and he takes even longer to answering nodding his head knowing that he had to say it was wrong killing those people. All through his interview it shows heavy editing and even more in James’s second part. Then cut to his kitchen extreme close up of James face showing a serious face saying he hides a gun under his pillow. He laughs and continues to show him going into his bedroom with Michael Moore. Michael narrates over the top at this scene stating that he didn’t want the cameramen into his bedroom. Still not giving proof that he has a gun under his pillow or something suspicious could be in his bedroom. He then continues to say in a calm voice and disappointment that he did hide a 44 magnum. Still a narration and no proof of any gun, the audience believe the director. In subtitles at the bottom of the screen “he has put a gun to his temple.” As you hear Michael “Don’t do that” as you hear the gun being moved and it starts to click to show that it is loaded. He then asks him if there should be restrictions on the gun they argue and fight for their corner and he replies as the camera zooms in. “There are wakos out there.” And the scene immediately cuts to the next scene.

The third scene of the documentary is the shooting scene at the Columbine High School. CCTV footage and a phone call to the police are included in the third sequence. April 20th 1999 white words on a black background with no music, no sarcasm no propaganda just a date and shooting sounds in the background. Over the top of the scene of the school sign under the name of the school has the “Home of the rebels” underneath it showing the irony of the even that happened. The 911 call of a school teacher’s audio over the top stating what has happened. It fades into a scene of two boys going inside the high school. And a dolly shot of the camera going through the entrance and going through the empty hall ways of the high school. Showing the scariness and the ghost feel creepiness of the school. It also shows what the boys routes have been, going up the entrance stairs and through the entrance of the school going round the empty corridors. It also shows the killing aftermath of the school things being knocked over. The 911 call is throughout the sequence, is off the teacher who describes the victims injuries and where the two boys are. The newswoman says that her call is live on air. She said she loves her show and watches it ever night is a very weird comment to make at the time of an attack. Another, heavily edited part of the documentary. It also shows the calls of other teachers and even parents trying to get information on their children. While the school is being filmed slow motion with a guitar being played slowly and carefully in the background while the 911 calls are over the top. It puts you in the position of the shooters and the students that the caller could have been in that spot terrified in the building. The women from speaking calmly she then becomes more hysterical. It shows CCTV footage of the cafeteria footage of the aftermath scene has now been transitioned to the same location on CCTV. Her 911 call of the shooters steps, matches the CCTV footage.

The guitar is still being played in the background with the 911 call; this is to make the scene more emotional. It shows you students and teachers hiding under the tables and the gun shots in the caller background match the footage of the students diving under the tables. It then shows footage of the shooters caught on CCTV, Michael has edited or his editors have edited a circle around them to show the audience the shooters. The screen then splits in four of the four different locations they went and shot at. Then it cuts to parents of one of the students at the school. It shows numerous different phone calls from multiple parents. The footage becomes slow motion of a class room catching on fire. The guitar seems to get louder, but the volume stays the exact same. After the footage has been edited to look like it has been cut out and includes some distortion. The guitar audio plays on and the video of the parents crying and students hysterical, the audio of the video is silent apart from the instrumental guitar.

Shoreham Army Camp Research

The sign of the 24th Division: 

The tents in the shoreham army camp were rapidly assembled in 1914. A great improvement was made in the early months of 1915 when the accommodation huts, rapidly constructed during the winter of 1914-15 were deemed fit for habitation and a new temporary town was born. These pages give some idea of where the camp was located and what some of it looked like. In 1913 the area around Buckingham park was peaceful open farm land. Locals had no idea that this was about to change; Kitcheners army was soon to take over the entire area and things would be very different. Following the declaration of war in August 1914 an army of soldiers would come to live in tents on this open grassland but unfortunately heavy rain began to fall in October 1914 turning the area into a mud bath.

A great improvement was made in the early months of 1915 when the accommodation huts, rapidly constructed during the winter of 1914-15 were deemed fit for habitation and a new temporary town was born.

These pages give some idea of where the camp was located and what some of it looked like. The goodchild letters indicate some dates of the camps; on the 16 September 1914 he wrote to his mother saying he was at Ranelagh Road School and that he will stop there for a week. When the goodchild brothers got to the camp at the end September 1914. “Dear Mother, I am writing to ask you if you will please send my watch. If I ask somebody the time they always tell me wrong. I was late on parade once. I am going to send my boots and a shirt they gave me at Ipswich home on Saturday. We moved our tents today from Slonk Hill to Buckingham Park about half a mile. I am quite alright and so is Ned. From your affectionate Arthur” He then talks about the construction on the shoreham camp site on the 1 October 1914. They both visited Brighton on the 19 October 1914. The first set was sent by 15103 Pte Arthur Goodchild, Suffolk Regt (date of birth 25 November 1896) to his mother from September 1914 (enlisted) to July 1916 (discharged?). AG enlisted in Kitchener’s New Army although under age and with defective hearing. He then went on to spend 9 weeks at shoreham camp: [just over 9 weeks would have him arrive probably during 11-14 September] until 17 November 1914.

The full collection of letters can be read at http://goodchilds.org/the-letters/

Early stages of the camps were in 1914. Following the winter of 1914/1915, which caused huge mud, slides in the camp the tents were replaced by wooden billets that accommodated 20 men each and included a Corporal who was in charge of the hut. Drill purpose rifles were issued initially and replaced later by veteran Lee Metford long single action rifles, which had been in use since the Boer War. Once basic drilling skills had been learned, uniforms were issued which came complete with a kitbag and large and side packs. Working parties were organized to assist with the construction of the billets, which were built, by local contractors and the Army Procurement Executive.

he occupation of time to prevent the onset of boredom became a priority and a large parade ground with a hard surface was set up on land at Mill Hill.  The building of wooden offices to house the Headquarters Staff and Quartermasters stores were built adjacent to the square. As time progressed wooden buildings to house the Medical Officer and staff were erected and it wasn’t long before recruits were being taught basic drill and how to march in line of route. The volume of mail at Shoreham post office increased so much that eventually an army post office was opened at the Mill Hill camp. A sanitation unit was provided but as this did not include a laundry the army posted a request in the local paper with a tariff of charges asking for laundering services which was responded to by many Shoreham housewives.

A great improvement was made in the early months of 1915 when the accommodation huts, rapidly constructed during the winter of 1914-15 were deemed fit for habitation and a new temporary town was born. These pages give some idea of where the camp was located and what some of it looked like.

The tented camp was rapidly assembled during 1914. The conditions were so bad with heavy rain and mud that the troops were moved out of the tents in September so that a more permanent wooden hut camp could be constructed.

Single Camera Techniques

A single camera either motion picture camera or professional video camera is employed on the set, and each shot to make up a scene is taken independently. An alternative production method, which is more widely used is still called a single camera, but in actuality two cameras are employed,one to capture a medium shot of the scene while the other to capture a close-up during the same take, which saves time as there are half as many set-ups for each scene.


As its name suggests, a production using the single-camera setup generally employs just one camera. Each of the various shots and camera angles is taken using the same camera, which is moved and reset to get each shot or new angle. The lighting setup is typically reconfigured for each camera setup.

In contrast, a multiple-camera setup consists of multiple cameras arranged to capture all of the different shots (camera angles) of the scene simultaneously, and the set must be lit to accommodate all camera setups concurrently. Multi-camera production generally results in faster but less versatile photography.


In single-camera, if a scene cuts back and forth between actor A and actor B, the director will first point the camera towards A and shoot shots number 1, 3, 5, 7, and so on. Then they will point the camera toward B and do shots number 2, 4, 6, 8, and so on. In the post-production editing process, the shots will be assembled sequentially to fit the script.

The single-camera setup gives the director more control over each shot, but is more time consuming and expensive than multiple-camera. The choice of single-camera or multiple-camera setups is made separately from the choice of film or video (that is, either setup can be shot in either film or video). Multiple-camera setups shot on video can be switched live-to-tape during the performance, while setups shot on film still require that the various camera angles be edited together later.

Multiple Camera Techniques:

The multiple-camera setupmultiple-camera mode of productionmulti-camera or simply multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras either film or professional video cameras are employed on the set and simultaneously record or broadcast a scene. It is often contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera.

Generally, the two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or crosses of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a widermaster shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action. This is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent film editing or video editing the footage.

It is also a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. Apart from saving editing time, scenes may be shot far more quickly as there is no need for re-lighting and the set-up of alternative camera angles for the scene to be shot again from the different angle. It also reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles. It is an essential part of live television.

In Eastenders they use this, with getting good angles and lightning, and showing the characters facial expressions,emotions and the location and who is around them.

An open Narrative structure is usually found in television series, in particular, ongoing soap operas such as EastEnders/Neighbours. In these narratives, the story has no apparent beginning, middle or end, in terms of the actual events. A familiar device in open narratives, especially soap operas, is a cliffhanger ending to each episode, from which the next episode can follow on. As a result, these stories can last a long time, and the programme itself can continue for years. 

A Closed Narrative structure is most commonly found in movies. As mentioned before, movies generally exist as one unique story, and contain a beginning, middle and an ending. A story is unravelled before an audience, and then ultimately brought to a conclusion. A closed narrative in a movie does not necessarily mean no sequels can be made. There can be prequels, set before the chronology of the first movie, or a sequel that can create an all-new story, with the same characters. But strictly speaking, they can still be movies in their own right. The James Bond movies (1962-1999), which total 19 separate movies involving the same characters, provide a good example of this.

eye level angle:

An eyelevel angle is the one in which the camera is placed at the subject’s height, so if the actor is looking at the lens, he wouldn’t have to look up or down. Eyelevel shots are incredibly common because they are neutral. They often have no dramatic power whatsoever, thus they are ideal for romantic comedies and news casting.

Low angles:

Low angles are captured from a camera placed below the actor’s eyes, looking up at them. Low angles make characters look dominant, aggressive, or ominous.

High Angle:

In a high angle, the camera is above the subject, looking down. This position makes characters look weak, submissive, or frightened. They are also good POVs of an adult looking at a child.

Dutch Tilt:

Also called canted angle, a Dutch tilt has the camera leaning sideways, transforming the horizon into a slope. A Dutch tilt changes horizontal and vertical lines into diagonals and creates a more dynamic composition. Though rare, canted angles can be employed with great artistic effect to disorient and disturb the viewer.

Point Of View (POV):

As the name suggests, point-of-view shots are angles in which the camera incorporates a character’s eyes. POVs are usually preceded by a close up of the character’s eyes.





High-key lighting is a style of lighting for filmtelevision, or photography that aims to reduce the lighting ratio present in the scene. This was originally done partly for technological reasons, since early film and television did not deal well with high contrast ratios, but now is used to suggest an upbeat mood. It is often used in sitcoms and comedies. High-key lighting is usually quite homogeneous and free from dark shadows. The terminology comes from the key light (main light).

Low-key lighting is a style of lighting for photographyfilm or television. It is a necessary element in creating a chiaroscuro effect. Traditional photographic lightingthree-point lighting uses a key light, a fill light, and a back light for illumination. Low-key lighting often uses only one key light, optionally controlled with a fill light or a simple reflector.

Soft light refers to light that tends to “wrap” around objects, casting diffuse shadows with soft edges. Soft light is when a light source is large relative to the subject, hard light is when the light source is small relative to the subject.

This depends mostly on the following two factors:

  • Distance. The closer the light source, the softer it becomes.
  • Size of light source. The larger the source, the softer it becomes.

Sound whose source is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film:

  • voices of characters 
  • sounds made by objects in the story 
  • music represented as coming from instruments in the story space ( = source music)


Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originated from source within the film’s world 

Digetic sound can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever its source is within the frame or outside the frame.

Non- Diagetic sounds:

Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action:

  • narrator’s commentary
  • sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect
  • mood music

Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from the a source outside story space.

The distinction between diegetic or non-diegetic sound depends on our understanding of the conventions of film viewing and listening.  We know of that certain sounds are represented as coming from the story world, while others are  represented as coming from outside the space of the story events.  A play with diegetic and non-diegetic conventions can be used to create ambiguity (horror), or to surprise the audience (comedy).